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Abstracts - Year VIII, no.2 / 2006
THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS UPON THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
Universitatea din Oradea, Catedra de Relaţii Internaţionale şi Studii Europene, Str. Universităţii nr. 1, Oradea, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Universitatea din Oradea, Catedra de Relaţii Internaţionale şi Studii Europene, Str. Universităţii nr. 1, Oradea, E-mail: email@example.com
The enlargement of the European Union is facing the current evolution of the European institutions and policies. The challenges of the reform have as their starting point and – at the same time – as a goal, the points of view, the opinions and the scenarios suggested by both the representatives of the civil society and particularly by the representatives of the national and European political institutions.
Keywords : enlargement, widening, deepening, integration, reform, European Union
THE DYNAMICS OF THE FRONTIER SYSTEM WITHIN THE POLITICAL TERRITORIAL EU SPACE (ECCS, EEC, EC) 1952-2007
Universitatea din Oradea, Departamentul de Geografie, Turism şi Amenajarea Teritoriului, Str. Universităţii, Nr. 1 410087, Oradea, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Universitatea din Oradea, Departamentul de Geografie, Turism şi Amenajarea Teritoriului, Str. Universităţii, Nr. 1 410087, Oradea, e-mail: email@example.com
The European political space developed in the second part of the XX Century and the beginning of the III rd millennium important modifications of structural-territorial nature between which, the most important ones had been generated by the continuous extension of the UE. The typology of the state borders spread by including new sectors characterized by structural complexity and variety. Crossing one of the borders sector from the extern category to the intern EU, the superposition in many cases with the “ NATO ” border, the inclusion of new “territorial waters”, all these on the background of “new states regrouping” are only a few of the mutations which determined new relations between the component system which, the most exposed are the “suburb” frontier areas. Hereby, from about 21,000 km of frontier sectors specific the ECCS nucleus (1952) became in 2004 (the most ample wave of integration) at over 80,000 km of terrestrial and maritime borders, intern and suburb referenced to the EU space. To specify is the fact that yet exists at the standard of the EU areas a series of problems into determination and “recognition” of some frontier maritime sectors like Germany/Denmark or Poland/Denmark. With each extending wave of the UE the frontier system became more complex, and within these the “extern” eastern border of the UE came to be the most dynamic under the route and secular aspect. Practically, through the integration wave which took place in 2004 the political territorial space of the UE is formed by “4 parts”: properly continental, Scandinavian, Balkan and British-insular , all these including 25 states, over 4.2 millions km 2 territory and over 83,000 km sectors of intern and extern borders, terrestrial and maritime.
Keywords : European Union, intern border, extern border, frontier system, maritime border, terrestrial border
SETTING LANGUAGE BORDERS IN WARMIA REGION IN XVI–XIX CENTURIES. FROM THE HISTORY OF THE NATIVE POLISH COMMUNITY IN SOUTHERN WARMIA REGION
Wydział Zamiejscowy w Elblągu Szkoła Wyższa im. Bogdana Jańskiego
Uniwersytet Warmińsko – Mazurski w Olsztynie, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Bildung der Sprachgrenze Ermlands in XVI–XIX Jahrhunderts. Aus der Geschichte der polnischsprechenden Gemeinschaft in Suedermland . Ziel der Suche von Autoren dieser Publikation ist die Probe die geschichtliche Grenzen binnen Ermlandsbistum, s.g. Ermlandsdominiun zu zeigen. Als Ergebnis der neuen Besiedelung, vom Anfang der XV Jahrhunderts, fang dieses Gebiet an sich auf zwei Anteile, in ethnischen und kulturellen Sinne, zu teilen. In der Fachliteratur, wurden die zwei Teile Ermlands als Nord- und Suedermland, sowie als deutsche und polnische Ermland genant. Der polnische Teil Ermlands wurde, anfangs XIX Jahrhunderts, zwei drittel kleiner als der deutsche und konzentrierte sich binnen drei Staedten: Bischofsburg (Biskupiec), Allenstein (Olsztyn) und Wartenburg (Barczewo). Nach den Informationen aus den Dioezesialen Inspektionen, die in der II Haelfte XVI Jahrhundert statt fanden, kann man die Reichweite des Territoriums festsaetzen. Im Verlauf der Geschichte hat sich die Grenze evolutorisch zuerst in Richtung Nord verschieben und danach, nach der Einschliessung Ermlands zu Preusen im Jahre 1772, wieder zu Ungunsten der polnischen Bevoelkerung gebildet. Die zuletzt gebildete Grenze in Sueden Ermlands beinhaltet verschiedene administrative Teilungen. In ersten Stelle war das die Teilung Kirchlicher Dominiums auf Kammeraemter sowie Pfarraemter. Die letzten haben sich oefter geaendert. Man kann sie auf Grund der Relationen von, nach Rom gesandten kirchlichen, wiederstellen.
LANDSCAPE CULTURE AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ICELAND
University “della Tuscia”, Viterbo (IT)
University “G. D'Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (IT)
The stereotype of Iceland is one of a land of ice and fire, constantly subject to the devastating power of nature, an image evoking the idea of a radically inhospitable environment, where surviving is almost impossible. Nevertheless since its independence, Iceland developed so quickly that it ranks nowadays in the first positions in the world in terms of GDP pro-capita and HDI. Underlying this development there is a peculiar relation between man and nature, that has been influencing the settlement and the economy so far, and that is so deeply rooted in the history of this territory to become a cultural and identity feature. The aim of this paper is to analyse the relation between environment and development in Iceland and the role of natural landscape in the cultural sphere and in the development policies of this country.
Keywords : Iceland, landscape, development
INFLUENCES OF POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE ELEMENTS UPON THE INDIVIDUALIZATION OF THE OAŞ LAND
„Babes-Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca, Sighetu Marmatiei Extension, e-mail : email@example.com
The “lands” of Romania, considered as territorial entities, appeared more than 1000 years ago, represent functional geographic regions, with their own mechanisms and have had variable extension in time and space. In the present paper we are seeking to approach two of the great problems that compete to the individualization of the Oaş Land as a geographic region: the present stretch of the region and the way that political-administrative systems changed through time, have manifested their influence.
Keywords: Oas Land, centrifugal force, administrative organization, internal cohesion
EUROREGION TESHIN SILESIA AS A COMPLEX SOCIAL-ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF POLISH-CZECH BORDERLAND
Euroregion Teshin Silesia represents a particular area among all other structures of this type in the borderland of Poland and the adjacent states (Fig. 1). It originated in 1998 as the twelfth Euroregion in Poland and occupies the area of 1,400 km2 (Czech part – 600 km2, Polish part 800 km2) with population of 630,000 (360,000 and 270,000 respectively). It represents an interesting example of historical, political and social-economic influences of transformation factors on the area studied. The genesis of the Euroregion itself, which embraces territorially also these towns, which historically do not belong to Teshin Silesia (Jastrzębie Zdrój), illustrates different forms of transborder co-operation between institutions of state administration, local government, businesses, scientific-research institutions, etc.
FROM THE NEED OF CHANGE TO SURPRISE: THE ELECTORAL BEHAVIOUR OF POPULATION AT THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN THE BANAT REGION (1990-2004)
Departamentul de Geografie, Universitatea de Vest din Timişoara, B-dul Vasile Pârvan, no 4, e-mail: cretan _ firstname.lastname@example.org
In 1990 one could notice that it was a strong electoral pulse for the presidential candidate Ion Iliescu, reducing then slowly in favour of the opposition candidate, Constantinescu who won even from 1992 in most of the the fiefs from Banat. The causes of the decreasing in fondness for Iliescu was the high rate of unemployment, a high level of prices, low wages and pensions, inefficient reorganization and restructuring of enterprises, slow privatisations etc. during his mandate. The need for changes in Banat could have been seen even since 1992. There were mountain areas where Iliescu maintain his fiefs but in the field and hill areas and mainly in the big towns (Timisoara, Arad, Lugoj) the options of voters were highly for the right-wing candidate. After four years of rapid social-economic changes, tthe voters from Banat turned to the messages brought by Vadim Tudor even if he was considered an extremist candidate. In this way, it was a big surprise that in the multiethnical area of Banat the electorate preferred mainly in the first tour of voting the leader of PRM. His success was thought as a way of not existing a candidate who could show a good expression for the difficult problems voters faced during the previous mandates: the fight against corruption, the belief in army and church. In 2004 the message of Basescu was very close in ideas (concise, direct but not extremist) to that of Vadim Tudor. Even in Banat circumscriptions the Democratic candidate won the polls in front of Nastase and C. V. Tudor because Nastase carried the burden of a permissive governship for great corrupts of his party (PSD), while Vadim Tudor could not influence a great part of Romanian intellectuals and minorities (especially the Hungarians from Banat) because his message had some radical forms.
Keywords : electoral behaviour; presidential elections; Banat region
INITIATIVES OF TRANSBOUNDARY COOPERATION WITHIN THE BLACK SEA AREA
University of Oradea, Departament of Geography, Tourism and Territorial Planning, Romania, e-mail: email@example.com
This paper underlines the necessity to have a regional policy within the Black Sea area especially that after January 1 2007 two riverain countries, Romania and Bulgaria, have become members of the European Union. For this reason the Black Sea is important to the European Union, especially that this area has a geostrategic position, is rich in natural resources, has a high potential to develop and constitutes an important junction for the energetic and transport flow. The main domains of cooperation are presented in this paper and the motives behind the necessity to achieve the objectives in the short and medium run.
Keywords: transboundary cooperation, Black Sea, Romania, domains of cooperation.