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Abstracts - Year XII, no.1 / 2010

 





SPATIAL PATTERN OF ROMANIA'S UNEVEN TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

Ioan IANOS

         Abstract: The heritage discrepancies, in the transitions countries from the centralized to the market economies, increased very much in the last years. The evolution model of the territorial decays individualizes some specific stages for transition countries: from a chaotic to a transitory politics, then to a deep economic restructuring and, finally, to accentuated discrepancies by differentiated economic growth policies. Key question is connected with the main factors involved in the increasing of the territorial discrepancies. The Romania case study demonstrates that it's about a multi-factors; geographical distance vis-a-vis of the European economic core has an important role in the increasing the discrepancies between West and Eastern part of Europe. Its role increases by overlapping of the heritage mentality in space organizing and preferential location of foreign investments. In Romania, a negative role in the balanced territorial development had the implementation an adequate regional development policy in the first 10 years, dominated by an obvious equal spirit approaching. The policy makers have ignored the importance of the major infrastructure in the territorial development, and not have understood the role of the differentiated capitalization of the European good practices in the local and regional development. For diminishing of the existing tendencies in accentuating of the uneven territorial development some action directions were defined. ( pdf.)




REGIONAL POLICIES AND CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION: NEW CHALLENGES AND NEW DEVELOPMENT MODELS IN CENTRAL EUROPE

Milan BUFON, Vesna MARKELJ

         Abstract: The article analyses the emergence of local cross-border institutions in public governance by addressing their context, dimensions and causal underpinnings. First, it provides a brief background on the typology of border areas and border regions in Europe and history of cross-border regions in Europe. Second, it offers a conceptual definition of cross-border regions and co-operation policies in Europe. Third, it analyses the experiences of cross-border co-operation in Central Europe in the case of Slovenia and shown advantages and obstacles of established forms of crossborder co-operation. It concludes stressing the future development perspectives in regional cross-border co-operation. ( pdf.)




GAS PIPELINES WAR

Marius-Cristian NEACSU, Silviu NEGUT

         Abstract: This article is a sequel to the one in the previous issue, called "Gas War". Research regarding the concept of "hard energy" is being continued in this study, this time not by analysing the balance of power between Europe, the "dependent consumer" and Russia, "sole supplier", also known as the "political tap strategy", but through a critical and interpretative analysis of the geostrategic games in relation to the diversification of the routes for Caspian energy projects. The results of this research show that the layout of the future gas pipelines is not an economic problem, but a (geo)political one, most of the time the economic feasibility studies giving way to the games of power. As we announced earlier, from geoeconomy, back to geopolitics. ( pdf.)




THE TURCOPHONE AREA: A NEW INTERMEDIARY SPACE?

Florin-Bogdan SUCIU, Ionel MUNTELE

         Abstract: The purpose of this article is to outline the importance of capitalizing the geo-strategic potential of the turcophone space by the euro-atlantic democracy in the purpose of controlling the Heartland area. This way, a decisive advantage would occur over the absolutist regimes from the Eurasian area; the process of euro-atlantic democratic globalization would accelerate, process which, reaching this historic moment, could become irreversible. The intervention of N.A.T.O and the E.U would be justified for reasons of own national security, concerning the issue of maintaining order within the Heartland area. This happens because, on the background of the U.S.S.R.'s dismembering, the pivot area has re-become a general factor of instability (terrorism, organized crime under different forms, etc.). Applying this strategic ample project is a difficult to accomplish task at this moment. The turcophone space is, for the time being, only a concept in theory and the edification of a territorial turcophone mega construction faces obstacles which seem to be impossible to overcome. ( pdf.)




BURKINA FASO, A COTTON PRODUCER IN THE FACE OF GLOBALISATION AND ECONOMIC DEPENDENCE

Valerie HAUCHART

         Abstract: Globalisation has changed the terms of international economics: Some countries in South East Asia or central America are emerging amongst the industrialised nations. Others, designated as poor countries, less advanced or countries in the Third World remain at a low level of development despite several attempts to integrate them into the international exchange network. Burkina Faso has being producing cotton since 1920 when it was part of the French colony (colony of Haute-Volta). Studying the function of the cotton production in the case of this country allows us to understand under which terms real complex relationship between producer countries, primarily agricultural produce and the countries who buy and who transform the raw products into finished products. The analysis of this economic relationship both financial and scientific, allow us to define this state of dependence. It also sheds a light on the realities of a Third World country in the torment of globalisation. ( pdf.)




THE ARAB WORLD - BETWEEN CENTRALITY AND PERIPHERY ON THE POLITICAL MAP

Cezar TECLEAN

         Abstract: Into the Arabic speaking countries, the values of the geopolitical potential Index indicate the existence of three pivot states: Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Morocco. Thus, the Turkish-Arabic-Iranian pivotal area (which includes Saudi Kingdom and Egypt) is found between Europe and Asia, within a difficult Newtonian mechanics of simultaneous gravity attraction, in relation with the two territorial bodies with masses higher than its mass. The phenomenon emphasizes the status of the Arabic-Turkish areal as a double peripheral fronton of connection and transit between the European and Asian space. ( pdf.)




A STUDY REGARDING THE BEHAVIOR OF FRENCH, GERMAN, AND RUSSIAN SOCIETIES. THE GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS

Ciprian-Beniamin BENEA

         Abstract: In this paper there is presented the influence of geography upon national character of three inportant nations: the French, the Germans, and the Russians. It could be observed that some geographical peculiarities, such as geographical location of those nations, brought some specific events upon them, which have repeated during history; and this marked in a visible manner their national character and the way they behave as societies. It is a guide regarding the connection between geography, history and culture. ( pdf.)




SEVERAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF THE GYPSIES (ROMA) FROM THEIR FIRST PRESENCES IN THE ROMANIA AND UNTIL THE SECOND WORLD WAR

Silviu COSTACHIE, Daniel DIEACONU, Camelia TEODORESCU

         Abstract: This study presents the complex image of one of the most interesting and personalized ethnicity from Romania: the Gypsies. The paper makes a quick note on the origins and the beginning moments of this ethnic group on Romanian land. This article seeks social characteristics, economic and demographic characteristics of Gypsies during the Middle Ages and early modern times, focusing on emancipation period and the consequences of great importance it has triggered. The specificity of this ethnic group, led to significant differentiation from most ethnic in these periods that is registered also in the interwar period. This paper contributes to shaping the image of an ethnic group that strongly individualized through traditional features that had done in a small degree to integrate in Romanian society of those times and continues to experience difficulties in adjusting to new realities and requirements arising from EU membership. ( pdf.)




PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS IN BIHOR COUNTY AND THEIR RESULTS BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS

Gabriel MOISA

         Abstract: Between the World Wars, Oradea was a cosmopolitan city. As we have seen, the Romanians were not the majority population. Those who dominated the city under demographic and economic aspect were the Hungarians and Jews. In political terms, since the early 20's, the most of the Romanians of Bihor County were subordinated to the most important party in Transylvania, the Romanian National Party, while the Hungarians adopted immediately after unification a political attitude circumscribed to passivity. After this period, the political life will greatly diversify in Transylvania together with the offensive of the parties in the Old Kingdom while the Hungarians will gradually accept to engage themselves in the political affairs of the city and country. ( pdf.)




ACTIVE GEO-STRATEGIC PLAYERS, GEOPOLITICAL PIVOTS AND THE CHANGING BALANCE OF POWER IN EURASIA

Liviu Bogdan VLAD, Andrei JOSAN, Gheorghe VLASCEANU

         Abstract: Efforts of constructing, organizing and foreseeing regions have become an important part of world politics. In the heart of the ongoing geopolitical struggle in the Eurasian region lies a long-standing Russian- American rivalry over dominance in this region that involves many interested regional actors on both sides. The source of domination of geopolitics in Eurasia is twofold. Regional processes in Eurasia are strongly influenced by the behavior of foreign actors involved there. Russia, China and the United States are the most important among them. They see each other's behavior and relationships through the prism of traditional "Great Game" analysis. According to the Great Game narrative, Eurasia is an important piece in a strategic confrontation among great powers for regional and global domination. Hence it is important to prevent other powers from dominating Eurasia. In its modern version, the control of Eurasia will also offer to control side unique opportunities to define the transportation of oil and gas resources of the region. Secondly, Eurasian states themselves adopted old balance of power politics as the main instrument of their foreign policy. Not only do they try to play major powers involved in Eurasia against each other, they also see themselves in obligation to balance among themselves. ( pdf.)




CROSS BORDER NATURAL PARKS, SUPPORT FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT. CASE STUDY OF THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN ROMANIAN BORDER

Dorina Camelia ILIES, Lucian BLAGA, Ioana JOSAN, Stefan BAIAS, Cezar MORAR, Grigore HERMAN

         Abstract: The cultural and physical-geographical elements, at individual or associated level, participate to organization of the specific territorial subsystems located on both sides of the border; through associations these elements can make up cross border territorial systems, represented by the protected natural areas component; for example: natural parks, geoparks, transnational parks-that operate in transboundary regime. One country border line does not limit a natural protected area, because the functioning principles of a functional natural territorial system do not overlap with the political-administrative structures. An opportunity for the transboundary regions is represented by tourism development and promotion, also turning the transboundary areas in tourist destinations. The states governments created national parks (e.g. Romania and Serbia, Romania and Ukraine etc) in order to protect this area and to preserve the natural and antropic heritage. This transnational park area offers huge potential for regional sustainable development which is indicated by protection and improvement of environment, transnational synergies for sustainable growth and sustainable tourism development. The protected natural areas financing programs use common measureas for the neighbouring countries local authorities, in order to ensure a sustainable socio-economic cross border development, quantified by both basic indicators connected to increasing of the cross border flows, unemployment rate, develelopment of the business and investment sectors and protection of environment and pollution; and target indicators (at the end of project implementation). ( pdf.)




THE FUNCTIONALITY OF THE BORDERLAND TERRITORIAL SYSTEM ACCORDING WITH THE RELIEF AND THE ROMANIAN-UKRAINIAN BORDER-LINE SUPPORT

Alexandru ILIES, Vasile GRAMA

         Abstract: The content of this article is referring to the Northern part of the Romanian-Ukrainian border, measuring 440.1 kilometers, and it is included in a dominant mountain area of the Carpathians Mountains. The scientific approach has as main objective the modeling of contiguous border and that of the crossborder systems generated by their combination in accordance with the morphological background. Using instruments and methods attested by the political geography literature we proposed to identify, from the quantitative, qualitative and functional-systemic point of view, those agents who also determine the elements that compose the functioning mechanisms of the Romanian and Ukrainian contiguous border areas starting from the support of the line border and of the morphological characteristics of the contiguous natural bordering systems. Such a cross-border system plays an important role for the social and economical integration process and for eliminating the traditional functions of the political border generating juxtaposed territorial systems. ( pdf.)




DIPLOMACY IN THE GAMES OF POWER. DIPLOMACY OF POWER POWER OF DIPLOMACY I. DIPLOMACY OF POWER

Silviu NEGUT, Andreea GAGEA

         Abstract: Diplomacy, one of the oldest areas of knowledge and human action, is an instrument for promoting and implementing the foreign policy of states. It is associated with the combined efforts of States to settle disputes and conflicts between them, to defend and promote their interests by means of negotiations and to maintain and develop peaceful relations. Diplomacy is addressed to the external world, the international space, and the diplomat is the power's representative (from the lowest to the highest power) in the international game. In this game, states behave as actors who play their role, larger or smaller, depending on the economic, military and political power and also depending on the geostrategy which one applies, at one time, in order to achieve their proposed objectives. Apart from the general considerations regarding diplomacy (with its corollary of international treaties), in this study is approached the multilateral diplomacy and, particularly, the diplomacy of power, respectively, the diplomacy waged from position of force by the prominent powers in a particular historical period, especially, by great powers. In this sense, are presented significant examples, from the message sent to Meliens by the Athenians in Antiquity till the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact from the mid-twentieth century. ( pdf.)




DAVID MITRANY AND FUNCTIONALISM. THE BEGINNINGS OF FUNCTIONALISM

Adrian-Claudiu POPOVICIU

         Abstract: The main notions about Functionalism get to the conclusion that the Brittish debates upon socialism and pluralism furnished the most important intelectual fundament for approaching, inside the international relations, developed by David Mitrany in 1930 and 1940. However a comparison of the functional theory in the international relations field with policies applied inside the public and private organizations, suggest that Mitrany was categorically influenced by the studies about organizing, appeared as a follow of the rapid growth of modern coorporations in all the industrialized world. ( pdf.)